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ACI 318 05美国混凝土结构规范.pdf

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ACI 318 05美国混凝土结构规范英文清晰版

BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318-05) AND
COMMENTARY (ACI 318R-05)

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACI 318 Building Code and Commentary
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 7
CHAPTER 1—GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................................... 9
1.1—Scope............................................................................................................................................................................. 9
1.2—Drawings and specifications ........................................................................................................................................ 14
1.3—Inspection .................................................................................................................................................................... 15
1.4—Approval of special systems of design or construction ................................................................................................. 18
CHAPTER 2—NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS .................................................................................... 19
2.1—Notation ....................................................................................................................................................................... 19
2.2—Definitions .................................................................................................................................................................... 28
CHAPTER 3—MATERIALS................................................................................................................... 37
3.1—Tests of materials ........................................................................................................................................................ 37
3.2—Cements ...................................................................................................................................................................... 37
3.3—Aggregates .................................................................................................................................................................. 38
3.4—Water ........................................................................................................................................................................... 38
3.5—Steel reinforcement...................................................................................................................................................... 39
3.6—Admixtures................................................................................................................................................................... 43
3.7—Storage of materials..................................................................................................................................................... 45
3.8—Referenced standards ................................................................................................................................................. 45
CHAPTER 4—DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS.................................................................................... 51
4.1—Water-cementitious material ratio ................................................................................................................................ 51
4.2—Freezing and thawing exposures................................................................................................................................. 52
4.3—Sulfate exposures ........................................................................................................................................................ 53
4.4—Corrosion protection of reinforcement .......................................................................................................................... 54
CHAPTER 5—CONCRETE QUALITY, MIXING, AND PLACING......................................................... 57
5.1—General ........................................................................................................................................................................ 57
5.2—Selection of concrete proportions ................................................................................................................................ 58
5.3—Proportioning on the basis of field experience or trial mixtures, or both................................................................................... 58
5.4—Proportioning without field experience or trial mixtures............................................................................................................. 63
5.5—Average strength reduction....................................................................................................................................................... 64
5.6—Evaluation and acceptance of concrete.................................................................................................................................... 64
5.7—Preparation of equipment and place of deposit........................................................................................................................ 68
5.8—Mixing .......................................................................................................................................................................... 69
5.9—Conveying.................................................................................................................................................................... 69
5.10—Depositing.................................................................................................................................................................. 70
5.11—Curing ........................................................................................................................................................................ 71
5.12—Cold weather requirements........................................................................................................................................ 72
5.13—Hot weather requirements ......................................................................................................................................... 72
CHAPTER 6—FORMWORK, EMBEDDED PIPES, AND CONSTRUCTION JOINTS.......................... 73
6.1—Design of formwork...................................................................................................................................................... 73
6.2—Removal of forms, shores, and reshoring..................................................................................................................... 73
6.3—Conduits and pipes embedded in concrete .................................................................................................................. 75
6.4—Construction joints ....................................................................................................................................................... 76
CHAPTER 7—DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT.................................................................................. 79
7.1—Standard hooks............................................................................................................................................................ 79
7.2—Minimum bend diameters ............................................................................................................................................ 79
7.3—Bending........................................................................................................................................................................ 80
7.4—Surface conditions of reinforcement ............................................................................................................................. 81
7.5—Placing reinforcement .................................................................................................................................................. 81
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
ACI 318 Building Code and Commentary
7.6—Spacing limits for reinforcement................................................................................................................................... 82
7.7—Concrete protection for reinforcement .......................................................................................................................... 84
7.8—Special reinforcement details for columns .................................................................................................................... 86
7.9—Connections ................................................................................................................................................................. 87
7.10—Lateral reinforcement for compression members ....................................................................................................... 88
7.11—Lateral reinforcement for flexural members ................................................................................................................ 90
7.12—Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement ................................................................................................................. 90
7.13—Requirements for structural integrity ........................................................................................................................... 92
CHAPTER 8—ANALYSIS AND DESIGN—GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ............................ 95
8.1—Design methods ........................................................................................................................................................... 95
8.2—Loading ........................................................................................................................................................................ 95
8.3—Methods of analysis ..................................................................................................................................................... 96
8.4—Redistribution of negative moments in continuous flexural members........................................................................... 98
8.5—Modulus of elasticity..................................................................................................................................................... 99
8.6—Stiffness ....................................................................................................................................................................... 99
8.7—Span length................................................................................................................................................................ 100
8.8—Columns..................................................................................................................................................................... 100
8.9—Arrangement of live load ............................................................................................................................................ 100
8.10—T-beam construction ................................................................................................................................................ 101
8.11—Joist construction ..................................................................................................................................................... 102
8.12—Separate floor finish ................................................................................................................................................. 103
CHAPTER 9—STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS............................................. 105
9.1—General ...................................................................................................................................................................... 105
9.2—Required strength ...................................................................................................................................................... 105
9.3—Design strength.......................................................................................................................................................... 107
9.4—Design strength for reinforcement.............................................................................................................................. 110
9.5—Control of deflections ................................................................................................................................................. 111
CHAPTER 10—FLEXURE AND AXIAL LOADS................................................................................. 119
10.1—Scope....................................................................................................................................................................... 119
10.2—Design assumptions................................................................................................................................................. 119
10.3—General principles and requirements ........................................................................................................................ 121
10.4—Distance between lateral supports of flexural members...................................................................................... 124
10.5—Minimum reinforcement of flexural members............................................................................................................ 124
10.6—Distribution of flexural reinforcement in beams and one-way slabs.......................................................................... 125
10.7—Deep beams............................................................................................................................................................. 127
10.8—Design dimensions for compression members ......................................................................................................... 128
10.9—Limits for reinforcement of compression members ..................................................................................................... 128
10.10—Slenderness effects in compression members ....................................................................................................... 130
10.11—Magnified moments—General ............................................................................................................................... 131
10.12—Magnified moments—Nonsway frames .................................................................................................................. 133
10.13—Magnified moments—Sway frames ........................................................................................................................ 137
10.14—Axially loaded members supporting slab system .................................................................................................... 140
10.15—Transmission of column loads through floor system............................................................................................... 141
10.16—Composite compression members ......................................................................................................................... 142
10.17—Bearing strength..................................................................................................................................................... 144
CHAPTER 11—SHEAR AND TORSION............................................................................................. 147
11.1—Shear strength ......................................................................................................................................................... 147
11.2—Lightweight concrete ................................................................................................................................................ 150
11.3—Shear strength provided by concrete for nonprestressed members............................................................151
11.4—Shear strength provided by concrete for prestressed members .................................................................153
11.5—Shear strength provided by shear reinforcement...................................................................................................... 156
11.6—Design for torsion..................................................................................................................................................... 160
11.7—Shear-friction............................................................................................................................................................ 171
11.8—Deep beams............................................................................................................................................................. 175
11.9—Special provisions for brackets and corbels.............................................................................................................. 176
4 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACI 318 Building Code and Commentary
11.10—Special provisions for walls.................................................................................................................................... 179
11.11—Transfer of moments to columns ............................................................................................................................ 181
11.12—Special provisions for slabs and footings................................................................................................................ 181
CHAPTER 12—DEVELOPMENT AND SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT......................................... 193
12.1—Development of reinforcement—General ................................................................................................................. 193
12.2—Development of deformed bars and deformed wire in tension ................................................................................. 194
12.3—Development of deformed bars and deformed wire in compression ........................................................................ 196
12.4—Development of bundled bars.................................................................................................................................. 197
12.5—Development of standard hooks in tension............................................................................................................... 197
12.6—Mechanical anchorage............................................................................................................................................. 200
12.7—Development of welded deformed wire reinforcement in tension ............................................................................. 200
12.8—Development of welded plain wire reinforcement in tension..................................................................................... 201
12.9—Development of prestressing strand ......................................................................................................................... 201
12.10—Development of flexural reinforcement—General................................................................................................... 203
12.11—Development of positive moment reinforcement .................................................................................................... 205
12.12—Development of negative moment reinforcement ................................................................................................... 207
12.13—Development of web reinforcement ........................................................................................................................ 208
12.14—Splices of reinforcement—General ......................................................................................................................... 211
12.15—Splices of deformed bars and deformed wire in tension......................................................................................... 212
12.16—Splices of deformed bars in compression............................................................................................................... 214
12.17—Special splice requirements for columns ................................................................................................................ 215
12.18—Splices of welded deformed wire reinforcement in tension..................................................................................... 217
12.19—Splices of welded plain wire reinforcement in tension ............................................................................................ 218
CHAPTER 13—TWO-WAY SLAB SYSTEMS..................................................................................... 219
13.1—Scope....................................................................................................................................................................... 219
13.2—Definitions ................................................................................................................................................................ 219
13.3—Slab reinforcement................................................................................................................................................... 220
13.4—Openings in slab systems........................................................................................................................................ 223
13.5—Design procedures................................................................................................................................................... 224
13.6—Direct design method............................................................................................................................................... 226
13.7—Equivalent frame method......................................................................................................................................... 233
CHAPTER 14—WALLS....................................................................................................................... 237
14.1—Scope....................................................................................................................................................................... 237
14.2—General .................................................................................................................................................................... 237
14.3—Minimum reinforcement ........................................................................................................................................... 238
14.4—Walls designed as compression members ............................................................................................................... 239
14.5—Empirical design method ......................................................................................................................................... 239
14.6—Nonbearing walls ..................................................................................................................................................... 240
14.7—Walls as grade beams ............................................................................................................................................. 240
14.8—Alternative design of slender walls ........................................................................................................................... 241
CHAPTER 15—FOOTINGS................................................................................................................. 243
15.1—Scope....................................................................................................................................................................... 243
15.2—Loads and reactions ................................................................................................................................................ 243
15.3—Footings supporting circular or regular polygon shaped columns or pedestals ........................................................ 244
15.4—Moment in footings .................................................................................................................................................. 244
15.5—Shear in footings...................................................................................................................................................... 245
15.6—Development of reinforcement in footings ................................................................................................................ 246
15.7—Minimum footing depth ............................................................................................................................................ 246
15.8—Transfer of force at base of column, wall, or reinforced pedestal................................................................................................246
15.9—Sloped or stepped footings ...................................................................................................................................... 249
15.10—Combined footings and mats ................................................................................................................................. 249
CHAPTER 16—PRECAST CONCRETE ............................................................................................. 251
16.1—Scope....................................................................................................................................................................... 251
16.2—General .................................................................................................................................................................... 251
TABLE OF CONTENTS 5
ACI 318 Building Code and Commentary
16.3—Distribution of forces among members ..................................................................................................................... 252
16.4—Member design ........................................................................................................................................................ 252
16.5—Structural integrity .................................................................................................................................................... 253
16.6—Connection and bearing design ............................................................................................................................... 255
16.7—Items embedded after concrete placement............................................................................................................... 257
16.8—Marking and identification ........................................................................................................................................ 257
16.9—Handling................................................................................................................................................................... 257
16.10—Strength evaluation of precast construction............................................................................................................ 257
CHAPTER 17—COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS.................................................. 259
17.1—Scope....................................................................................................................................................................... 259
17.2—General .................................................................................................................................................................... 259
17.3—Shoring..................................................................................................................................................................... 260
17.4—Vertical shear strength ............................................................................................................................................. 260
17.5—Horizontal shear strength......................................................................................................................................... 260
17.6—Ties for horizontal shear .......................................................................................................................................... 261
CHAPTER 18—PRESTRESSED CONCRETE.................................................................................... 263
18.1—Scope....................................................................................................................................................................... 263
18.2—General .................................................................................................................................................................... 264
18.3—Design assumptions................................................................................................................................................. 265
18.4—Serviceability requirements—Flexural members ...................................................................................................... 266
18.5—Permissible stresses in prestressing steel ................................................................................................................ 269
18.6—Loss of prestress...................................................................................................................................................... 269
18.7—Flexural strength ...................................................................................................................................................... 271
18.8—Limits for reinforcement of flexural members............................................................................................................ 272
18.9—Minimum bonded reinforcement ............................................................................................................................... 273
18.10—Statically indeterminate structures .......................................................................................................................... 275
18.11—Compression members—Combined flexure and axial loads .................................................................................. 276
18.12—Slab systems.......................................................................................................................................................... 276
18.13—Post-tensioned tendon anchorage zones ............................................................................................................... 278
18.14—Design of anchorage zones for monostrand or single 5/8 in. diameter bar tendons............................................... 283
18.15—Design of anchorage zones for multistrand tendons........................................................................................................284
18.16—Corrosion protection for unbonded tendons.....................................................................................................................284
18.17—Post-tensioning ducts............................................................................................................................................. 285
18.18—Grout for bonded tendons ...................................................................................................................................... 285
18.19—Protection for prestressing steel ............................................................................................................................. 286
18.20—Application and measurement of prestressing force............................................................................................... 287
18.21—Post-tensioning anchorages and couplers.............................................................................................................. 287
18.22—External post-tensioning ........................................................................................................................................ 288
CHAPTER 19—SHELLS AND FOLDED PLATE MEMBERS............................................................. 291
19.1—Scope and definitions............................................................................................................................................... 291
19.2—Analysis and design ................................................................................................................................................. 293
19.3—Design strength of materials .................................................................................................................................... 295
19.4—Shell reinforcement .................................................................................................................................................. 295
19.5—Construction............................................................................................................................................................. 297
CHAPTER 20—STRENGTH EVALUATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES ...................................... 299
20.1—Strength evaluation—General.................................................................................................................................. 299
20.2—Determination of required dimensions and material properties ................................................................................ 300
20.3—Load test procedure ................................................................................................................................................. 301
20.4—Loading criteria ........................................................................................................................................................ 301
20.5—Acceptance criteria .................................................................................................................................................. 302
20.6—Provision for lower load rating.................................................................................................................................. 304
20.7—Safety....................................................................................................................................................................... 304
CHAPTER 21—SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR SEISMIC DESIGN...................................................... 305
21.1—Definitions ................................................................................................................................................................ 305
6 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACI 318 Building Code and Commentary
21.2—General requirements .............................................................................................................................................. 307
21.3—Flexural members of special moment frames........................................................................................................... 312
21.4—Special moment frame members subjected to bending and axial load .................................................................... 315
21.5—Joints of special moment frames .............................................................................................................................. 320
21.6—Special moment frames constructed using precast concrete ................................................................................... 322
21.7—Special reinforced concrete structural walls and coupling beams ............................................................................ 324
21.8—Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete .................................................................................... 330
21.9—Special diaphragms and trusses.............................................................................................................................. 330
21.10—Foundations ........................................................................................................................................................... 333
21.11—Members not designated as part of the lateral-force-resisting system ................................................................... 336
21.12—Requirements for intermediate moment frames ..................................................................................................... 338
21.13—Intermediate precast structural walls ...................................................................................................................... 342
CHAPTER 22—STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE .......................................................................... 343
22.1—Scope....................................................................................................................................................................... 343
22.2—Limitations................................................................................................................................................................ 343
22.3—Joints ....................................................................................................................................................................... 344
22.4—Design method......................................................................................................................................................... 344
22.5—Strength design........................................................................................................................................................ 345
22.6—Walls ........................................................................................................................................................................ 347
22.7—Footings ................................................................................................................................................................... 348
22.8—Pedestals ................................................................................................................................................................. 350
22.9—Precast members..................................................................................................................................................... 350
22.10—Plain concrete in earthquake-resisting structures................................................................................................... 350
APPENDIX A—STRUT-AND-TIE MODELS........................................................................................ 353
A.1—Definitions.................................................................................................................................................................. 353
A.2—Strut-and-tie model design procedure ........................................................................................................................ 359
A.3—Strength of struts ....................................................................................................................................................... 360
A.4—Strength of ties .......................................................................................................................................................... 363
A.5—Strength of nodal zones ............................................................................................................................................ 364
APPENDIX B—ALTERNATIVE PROVISIONS FOR REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE FLEXURAL AND COMPRESSION MEMBERS..........99jianzhu.......... 367
B.1—Scope ........................................................................................................................................................................ 367
APPENDIX C—ALTERNATIVE LOAD AND STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS ......................... 373
C.1—General ..................................................................................................................................................................... 373
C.2—Required strength...................................................................................................................................................... 373
C.3—Design strength ......................................................................................................................................................... 374
APPENDIX D—ANCHORING TO CONCRETE................................................................................... 379
D.1—Definitions ................................................................................................................................................................. 379
D.2—Scope........................................................................................................................................................................ 381
D.3—General requirements ............................................................................................................................................... 382
D.4—General requirements for strength of anchors ........................................................................................................... 384
D.5—Design requirements for tensile loading..................................................................................................................... 389
D.6—Design requirements for shear loading ...................................................................................................................... 397
D.7—Interaction of tensile and shear forces ....................................................................................................................... 403
D.8—Required edge distances, spacings, and thicknesses to preclude splitting failure..................................................... 403
D.9—Installation of anchors ............................................................................................................................................... 405
APPENDIX E—STEEL REINFORCEMENT INFORMATION.............................................................. 407
COMMENTARY REFERENCES.......................................................................................................... 409
INDEX.................................................................................................................................................. 425